smart clothes, wiser humans

A Breakthrough Non-invasive Diabetic Monitoring System


Since the Nobel Prize-winning discovery of graphene in 2007, this exciting molecularly thin and flexible nanomaterial has received significant attention for its potential in diverse applications ranging from nanoelectronic to energy storage to biomedical devices. Our founder research team at Stevens Institute of Technology discovered that one of the derivatives for graphene, a.k.a graphene oxide, can play an important role as the next generation “invisible sensors”. Upon inkjet printing and various post-treatment, the graphene-based component functions as mechanically flexible and molecularly thin sensors for monitoring skin temperature, heart rate, sweating, and muscle motion. From this initial invention, we have further developed and optimized the  negative temperature coefficient  behavior, which is characterized by an inverse exponential relationship between temperature and electrical resistance, of graphene to develop and demonstrate the most conformal (>1,000 mechanical bending cycles), precise (±0.01°C), responsive (~0.1 s), and miniaturizable (10 nanometer thick and 50 micrometer wide) temperature sensor. Since all other known temperature sensors are ceramic-, silicon-, and metal-based, the conformal nature of the graphene-based temperature sensor is truly unique. Because of its extraordinary flexibility and thinness, we envision such invisible graphene-based sensor will enable the innovative platform for  a variety of pathophysiological developments such as fever, exhaustion, to diabetic foot ulcer development.


Foot Health Monitoring 

Diabetic foot amputation affected 70,000 patients a year, cost the healthcare system $15 billion dollars and have a tremendous social impact.


Inkjet Printing Technology 

Customized inkjet printing of graphene solution was utilized on different substrates including flexible electronic compatible Kapton and other textile substrate material. 

Inkjet printing has many advantages over non-solution graphene processing technology with minimal waste generation, easy to scale up and retrofit to a roll-to-roll manufacturing facility. 

The leading cause for the diabetic foot amputation was attributed to the lack of foot health monitoring technology, especially for patients with neuropathy conditions. This patient population was suggested to integrate their feet check-ups into daily routine and communicate with health care providers with any abnormality. 


Wearable Graphene Sensors

Publication Date: 12/22/2016



Inkjet-printed Flexible Electronic Components from Graphene Oxide

Issue Date: 08/19/2014

Graphene-based Films in Sensor Applications

Issue Date: 11/03/2015



“In the near future, clothes will act as the natural physical interface of the body to measure vital signs”.

- Linh Le/ Founder & CEO, Bonbouton